Imam Ibn ul Qayyim al Jawziyyah

Of the five fundamentals of Islam, Zakat occupies the second position (after the shahada), the first being prayer. This word is derived from the verb ‘Zaka’, which means: ‘It (a plant) grew.’ The second derivative of this word carries the sense of purification, e.g., ‘Qad aflaha man zakkaha (he is indeed successful who purifies himself). Spending the wealth for the sake of Allah purifies the heart of man of the love of material wealth. The man who spends offers that as a humble gift before the Lord and thus affirms the truth that nothing is dearer to him in life than the love of Allah and that he is fully prepared to sacrifice everything for His sake. There is no burden of obligation on one who receives Zakat, but a sense of thankfulness and gratitude on the part of the giver, since has been enabled by the recipient to discharge his obligation that he owes to Allah and society. Zakat is paid on surplus of wealth that is left over after the passage of a year. It is thus a payment on the accumulated wealth. Leaving aside animals and agricultural yield, Zakat is paid at almost a uniform rate of 2 ½%.

The minimum standard of surplus wealth over which Zakat is charged is known as ‘Nisab’. It differs with different kinds of property, the most important being nearly 21 OZ in case of silver and 3 OZ in case of gold. The Nisab of cash is the same as that of gold and silver. Twenty percent of buried treasure, i.e. wealth that does not imply exertion of effort in collecting it; as for agricultural crops that require labour to gain, Zakat would be 10% and it is known as `Ushur (tenth). If the land is irrigated by artificial methods, one-twentieth part of the yield is to be paid as Zakat. Should the land producing the yield be in need on constant labour and catering, then the owner is bound to pay one-fortieth of the produce. There is no Zakat on less than five camels, but if the person pays it out of his own sweet will that would be a voluntary act of charity. Upon five camels the Zakat is one goat, provided they subsist upon pasture throughout the year, because Zakat is due only upon such camels as live on pasture and not upon those which are fed in the house with fodder. One goat is due upon any number of camels from five to nine, and two goats on any number from ten to fourteen. There on any number from fourteen to nineteen and four upon any number from twenty to twenty-four and upon any number of camels from twenty-five to thirty-five, the Zakat is a ‘Bint-al-Makhaz’, that is, a camel’s yearling colt.

No Zakat is due upon fewer than forty goats and upon forty goats that feed for the greater part of the year upon pasture, there is due, at the expiration of the year, Zakat of one goat. One goat is due on thirty cows. As for horses, no Zakat is due on them in the light of the Holy Prophet’s guidance.

The objects and persons on whom Zakat is to be spent are included in the following verse:

“The alms are only for the poor and the needy, and for those employed in connection therewith, and for those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and for the (freeing of) slaves, and for those in debt, and for the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarer – an ordinance from Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.” [9:60]


Uloom Al Quran

A series of lectures on the sciences of Qur’an delivered at the QSS (Canada) centre in the summer of 2007 by Navaid Aziz.

Uloom Al Quran- An introduction

Uloom al Quran-The Basmallah and How the Quran was Preserved

Uloom al Quran- Revelation of the Quran by Navaid Aziz

Uloom al Quran- Compilation of the Quran by Navaid Aziz

Uloom al Hadith


A series of lectures on the sciences of Hadith delivered at the QSS (Canada) centre in the summer of 2007 by Navaid Aziz.


Uloom al Hadith- Struggles of the predecessors in preserving the Sunnah



Uloom al Hadith- Status and Authority of the Sunnah in Islam



Uloom al Hadith- Examining some proofs of those who reject the Sunnah



Uloom al Hadith- Preservation of the Sunnah



Uloom al Hadith- Defining basic hadith terminology


What is Eemaan?

Eeman is explicitly described in the famous hadeeth of Jibreel (alaihis-salaam), when he (alaihis-salaam) asked the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam): “What is Eeman?” He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) replied: “Eeman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and to believe in the Predestination; the good and the bad.” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Ibn Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) said: ‘When the delegation of Abd al-Qais came to the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam), he commanded them to believe in Allah and asked: “Do you know what is Eeman?” They replied: ‘Allah and His Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) knows best.’ He (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) then answered: “It includes bearing witness that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah, and that Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) is the Messenger of Allah, to establish Prayer, pay Zakaat, fast in the month of Ramadaan, and give one-fifth of the war-booty.” [Abu Dawood 3/ 4660 and at-Tirmidhee]

All the matters of belief relating to Allah, the Day of Judgment and other matters of the unseen originate from these six fundamentals, so “Give glad tidings to those who believe and do good deeds, for them will be Gardens through which rivers flow…” [Soorah al-Baqarah (2): 25]


Eeman is a combination of Belief and Actions. The earlier scholars summed up these two components in their saying: “Eeman is Statement and Action.” [See al-Laalakai v.1, p.176]

Statement here includes both; statements of the heart and statement of the tongue (Verbal Confessing) and Action include both, actions of the heart and actions of the body. These two components are broken down into three essential parts for better understanding: –

  • Belief of the Heart.
  • Confession by the Tongue
  • Actions of the Body.

(a) Belief of the Heart: Heart is the root of Eeman. If the belief of the heart is not firm and correct then no other deed or action can be perfect. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “There is a lump of flesh in the body. When it is sound, the whole body is sound; but when it goes wrong, the whole body goes wrong (as a result). It is the heart!!” [Saheeh al-Bukharee and Saheeh Muslim]

Belief in the heart constitutes of two parts: –

(a) Statement of the Heart, i.e. Tasdeeq (Affirmation) made up of Recognition, Knowledge and Affirmation of Allah and His Commands.

(B) Actions of the Heart i.e. Inqiyaad (Submission) made up of Acceptance and Submission to Allah and His Commands.

The first aspect of Recognition and Knowledge is ingrained in the human nature (i.e. Fitrah Natural Instinct). The second aspect of Submission requires to be implied. Therefore, the main message of all the Messengers of Allah (alaihis-salaam) and their dispute with the disbelievers was specifically the second aspect; i.e. ‘Submission to the Commands of Allah.’

Allah says: “And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (community, nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid Taghoot.” [Soorah an-Nahl (16): 36]

It was difficult for the disbelievers to accept and submit to the Commands of Allah because they lacked the love for the Truth.

Allah says: “…he brought them the Truth, but most of them are averse (unwilling, opposed) to the Truth.” [(23): 70]

And: “It is not you (O Muhammad (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam)) that they deny, but it is the signs of Allah that the wrongdoers deny.” [Soorah al-An’aam: 33]

But “If you ask them (the disbelievers) who created them, they will surely say: “Allah” How then are they turned away (from His worship)?” [(43): 87]

Thus, in general, the truth of Allah’s Oneness (Allah’s Lordship) is clear to all, but they do not accept and submit to the Commands of Allah, which Allah refers as Truth in the verse. This is one of the major aspects that distinguish Mumin (believer) from Mushrikeen (non-believers).

Thus, the belief of the heart is the most important component of Eeman. One who desires to be certain about his Eeman and safeguard himself from loosing it (Eeman) – he must Recognize the Truth, Desire the Truth and hold Love for it (meaning adhere firmly to the Commands of Allah). This should also be combined with hatred for falsehood and disbelief, because Allah mentioned love for Faith along with the hatred for disbelief and disobedience in the verse:

“But Allah has endured the Faith to you and has beautified it in your hearts and has made disbelief, wickedness and disobedience hateful to you. These are the rightly guided ones.” [Soorah Hujurat (49): 7]

(B) Confession by the Tongue:

The second necessary component of Eeman is the confessing of one’s Eeman by the Tongue. The simple pronouncement of the words ‘La ilaha illAllah’ is not the intent – Certainly, the hypocrites did so (merely pronounced the Shahadah) but they were not true believers. The pronouncement of the words must accompany: –

  • The Correct Belief in the Lordship of Allah and its related aspects.
  • Rejection of all kind of Shirk.
  • Adherence to the laws of Islam.

If these principles are not the intent of the proclamation, then such a confession is not beneficial. Hence, before one makes the testimony of Faith, he must clearly understand the meaning and purport of confession.

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) writes in his book Kitaab al-Eeman:

“The Arabs do not have any such thing in their language as affirmation or denial unless it be in meaning and wording (i.e. unless one understands and verbally confesses). One will not find in Arabic speech statements such as: ‘Mr. X believed in Mr. Y’ or ‘denied him’ if Mr. X only knew it in his heart that he (Mr. Y) was true. (Such a statement would only be made if the person) spoke it. Whoever does not affirm his belief in someone with his speech, if he has the ability to do so, is not a believer according to (the language of the) Arabs. Therefore, our pious predecessors of this nation (the Sahabah) and those who follow them in goodness agree on this point.

One who believes in his heart but does no verbally state his belief is not considered as a believer neither in this life nor in the Hereafter. Allah has not declared such a person to be a believer in the Message (the Qur’aan) – simply due to the Knowledge of Eeman in his Heart. He is not considered a believer unless he confirms it by his speech.

Therefore, the outward speech is an essential aspect of Eeman, and according to the earlier and later scholars, one will not be saved unless he verbally testifies. The Muslims agree that he, who does not make the confession of faith although he has the ability to do so, is a disbeliever. He is a disbeliever both inwardly and outwardly according to the pious predecessors and Imams of this nation.” [Ibn Taymiyyah, Kitaab al-Eeman, p.126]

(c) Actions of the Body:

Actions of the body are the third integral part of Eeman. True belief of the heart results in external Submission to the Commands of Allah. It is not possible that one’s belief of the heart is at a high level of Eeman but is not demonstrated by his deeds.

Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) said: “It is inconceivable that there be a man who is a believer with confirmed belief in the heart that Allah has obligated him to Pray, give Zakaat, Fast and perform Hajj but he lives his whole life without even making one prostration to Allah or never fasting any month of Ramadaan, never paying Zakaat for the sake of Allah and never making pilgrimage to Allah’s House. This is impossible!! This would only happen if the person has hypocrisy and opposition to Islam in his heart – It would never happen with a true faith!! For this reason, Allah describes those who refused to prostrate, as unbelievers…” [Muhammad Ibn Taymiyyah Majmoo vol.7, p.611]

The most important belief that should dictate our actions is that Allah All-Mighty exists, He is the Creator and Provider, and none can benefit not harm us except with His Permission. For example, if a person’s Eeman in Allah is firm, he will be able to direct all his worship and obedience to Allah and feel no fear to worldly powers.

The Story of the Prophet Moosa, the Magitians and the Pharaoh

Consider the encounter of Pharaoh’s court magicians with Prophet Moosa (alaihis-salaam) as described in the Qur’aan. Before meeting the Prophet, they pleaded with Pharaoh for a substantial reward if they were to defeat Moosa (alaihis-salaam) in the contest using magic:

“So the sorcerer came to Pharaoh and said: ‘Of course we shall have a suitable reward if we win.'” [Soorah al-A’raaf (7): 113]

Pharaoh accepted their plea and promised them not only a reward but also position at court. When the encounter with Moosa (alaihis-salaam) began, the magicians realized quickly that while their own display was simple magic, the Prophet Moosa’s display was extraordinary and much more than any human could do. So they all fell down in Sajda (prostration) saying: “We believe in the lord of the Worlds. The Lord of Moosa and Haroon.” [Soorah Taa-Haa : 70]

Pharaoh was so stunned by their declaration of Faith in Allah that he shouted: “Have you believed in him, before I gave you permission?… Be sure, I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and then I will crucify you on trunks of palm trees. So shall you know which of us can give the more and lasting punishment.” [Soorah Taa-Haa : 71]

But these threats did not frighten the magicians. These men who had just been begging Pharaoh for more gold coins now became so fearless because of their faith in Allah that they answered him back easily: “Never shall we prefer you over the Clear Signs that have come to us and Him who has created us. So decree whatever you wish to decree. For you can only decree concerning matters of this world. We have believed in our Lord; may He forgive us our faults and the magic to which you did compel us, for Allah is the Best and forever abiding.” [Soorah Taa-Haa : 72-73]

Increase and Decrease of Eeman:

“Whenever there comes down a Soorah, some of them say: ‘which of you has had his faith increased by it? Yes, those who believe their faith is increased and they do rejoice. But as for those whose hearts is diseased, it only adds wickedness to their wickedness, and they die while they are disbelievers.” [Soorah at-Tawbah : 124-125]

The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) said: “Faith has over seventy branches, most excellent of which is the declaration of “La ilaha illa Allah’ and the humblest of which is the removal of a bone from the road. And modesty is a branch of Eeman.” [(Saheeh) Sunan Abo Dawood (3910)]

Eeman increases and decreases according to one’s Belief and Actions. It has higher parts and levels. Acts of obedience to Allah increase one’s Eeman and acts of disobedience decrease it. This is where those who posses Eeman fall in different ranks. Hence, with regards to the actions of the heart, some have a greater love of Allah than others, while others fear Him more, and others are superior in their sincerity to Allah. Concerning the actions of the tongue, some recite Qur’aan more than others do, others engage in more remembrance. Likewise, people also differ in actions of the limbs.

Basic Level of Imaan

The basic level of Imaan is the minimum level of ‘Tasdeeq – Affirmation (or Statement)’ and the minimum level of ‘Inqiyaad Submission (or Action).’

(a) Tasdeeq (Affirmation) – Belief in everything that one knows from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and willingness to believe in all the new information he acquires from him (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Meaning to realize, accept and admit that he must believe in everything that is authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).

(b) Inqiyaad (Submission) – Adherence to everything known from the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam). Meaning to submit to all the commands of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam) and have a willingness, desire and recognition that he is obliged to submit to every command authentically known from him (sallallahu alaihe wa-sallam).

These are the compulsory aspects for the validity of Imaan. If these are not fulfilled then Imaan does not exist.


How To Maintain Khushoo’ In Prayer

Author: Hussain al-Awaa’ishah
Source: As-Salaat Wa Atharuhaa Fee Ziyaadatil Eemaan (Trans Abu Iyaad)

Allaah – Subhaanahu wa Ta’aalaa – said:

The Believers will prosper. Those who have khushoo within their prayers [Mu’minoon 23:1-2]

and He – Taa’aalaa – also said:

And stand before Allaah with a devout frame of mind [Baqarah 2:238]

Abu Hurairah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) prayed one day, turned aro und and said: “O so and so! Do you not beautify your prayer? Does not the one wh o performs prayer when he does so look at how he prays? Indeed he prays for hims elf.”

This khushoo is perfected by a number of matters some of which are within the pr ayer itself and others outside of it. Amongst such matters are:

1. Remembrance of Death

Anas (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Remember death within your prayer because when a man remembers death in his prayer is strives to beautify h is prayer and pray the prayer of a man who does not think that he will perform another prayer after it. Take caution and and an excuse is sought for every affa ir.”

The Messnger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) has ordered the muslim to remember death during his prayer. This is because it is a means of beautifying the prayer. The thought of death creates apprehension in the souls and by it the actions are sealed. What comes after it is even more frightening. Where is the escape from the compressio n of the grave? And what will our response be when we are questioned in the grav e? Futhermore, we do not know where our destination is, to a garden whose width is as that of the heavens and the earth or to the fire whose fuel is men and sto nes.

Thus does the servant imagine the visions of death and what comes after it, so h e prays the prayer of a man who doesn’t think that he will perform a prayer afte r it. He, therefore, beautifies his prayer, counts himself amongst the dead, pr epares his shroud, writes his will and returns the rights to those who own them. When he wakes up he does not wait for the evening and when he reaches the eveni ng he does not wait for the morning.

In this manner he comes to perform the prayer, humble, submissive and weeping. B etween fer and hope he faces the Hereafter and he bids farewell to the world. It is a farewell prayer and a prayer of farewell. By it he says farewell to his fa mily, parents, brothers and his dearest and nearest ones, in fact the whole World.

And here he says “Allaahu Akbar” – Allaah is Greater – indeed He is greater than every single thing. He belittles this world and deems it insignificant. Then he makes one of the opening supplications and says “O Allaah make my sins distant from me as you have made the the east and west distant from each other.” He visu alises the remoteness of the east from the west then he brings to mind whatever he can from among his sins and mistakes which his back carries. He fears that he will meet Allaah – Subhaanahu – in this state and that death will pass him befo re he has repented; so he calls with this supplication, certain and convinced th at it will be answered.

He reflects upon the meaning of all that he utters during his prayer, bringing t o mind the greatness and might of Allaah – Ta’aalaa – in his heart, tears wellin g from his eyes because Paradise and Hellfire have become evidently closer to hi m than his shoelace. He personifies the saying of the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam): “Pray a f arewell prayer as if you see Him and though you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.”

It is essential to be observant of Allaah – Ta’aalaa – so that the matter of pra yer is set aright and that the world is placed behind our backs. If a person kne w that his words are being heard and that they reach the King without a doubt wh at then will he say? And how will he speak? Will you not see him weighing his le tters and words? How will it be for the one who stands erect in front of the All -Hearer the All-Seer and All-Knowing, the One from Whom no secret is hidden?

Abdullaah ibn Shikhkhir (ra) said: I saw the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) praying with us and in his chest was a humming/buzzing sound, due to his weeping, like that of a cooking kettle (when it boils).

The weeping of Umar (ra) could be heard from the last row as been reported in Bukhaaree. Abdullaah ibn Shaddaad said: I heard the sobbing of Umar while I was in the last row and he was reciting: “I complain of my grief and sorrow to Allaah alone.” [Yoosuf 12:86]

As for Abu Bakr (ra), the people could not heat his recitation in the prayer due to his weeping just as Aa’ishah (ra) has described when she said: “The Messenge r of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said while he was in his (final) illness: “Call upon Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer”. Aa’ishah said: “I said: When Abu Bakr stands in y our place the people are not able to hear due to weeping so call Umar and let hi m lead the people”. He (the Messenger) said: “Call Abu Bakr and let him lead the people”. Aa’ishah said to Hafsah: “Say to him (the Messenger) that when Abu Bak r stands in your place the people cannot hear him due to weeping so call Umar an d let him lead the people.” Hafsah did that and the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Indee d you are like the companions of Yoosuf. Call Abu bakr and let him lead the peop le in prayer.” Hafsah said to Aa’ishah: “I was never to gain any good from you.”

In another narration: “Abu Bakr is a sorrowful man. When he stands in your place he is not able to pray with the people.”

2. Reflecting upon the Meanings of the Words which are related to the Prayer

When he says “Allaahu Akbar” he brings to mind the meaning of these words and th e greatness and might of Allaah the Exalted which they contain. When he seeks re fuge in Allaah from Shaytaan – the accursed – he reflects upon the meaning of se eking refuge and that it entails recourse to and holding onto Allaah, the All-He aring Who hears the servant, the All-Knowing Who knows what the Shayaateen whisp er. He brings to mind that with this (seeking refuge) he opens the door toevery good and closes the door to every evil. In the same manner does he reflect upon the meanings of Bismillaah…, the Tasbeeh (Subhaanallaah) and the sending of pr ayers upon the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam).

It is essential to turn to the books of Tafseer and sayings of the scholars unti l a person understands what exactly he is saying and that is saying what he unde rstands. This is for all of his prayer, he strives to achieve that in accordance with his capability and strength.

3. Abandoning sins and disobedience.

Allaah the Exalted said:

Indeed Allaah does not change the condition of a people until they change what is in their souls [Surah Ra’d 13:11 ]

Disobedience is a barrier which stands in front of khushoo’ in the prayer. Included in this disobedience is clinging to a woman possessing evil manners and not divorcing her or giving a fool power to dispose of his wealth or giving a loan without it being witnessed. The Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “There are three who call upon Allaah – Azzawajall – but are not answered: A man under whom is a woman of evil nature and he does not divorce her, a man who is owed something by another but who did not call anyone to be a witness over it and a man who gives a fool his wealth.” Allaah the Exalted also said: And do not give to the foolish their wealth”

Also included in this is the disobedience the wife shows to her husband and the slave who has run away from his master, as occurs in the hadeeth: “There are two whose prayer does not go beyond their heads: A servant who has fled from his master until he returns and a woman who disobeys her husband until she returns.”

Likewise obeying Allaah in abundance increases khushoo’ in the prayer and adds t o its beautification. Among the things which bring this about are: Being mercifu l to orphans, stroking their heads and feeding them. In this regard, the Messeng er (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Do you wish that your heart should become soft and that you obta in your need? Show mercy to the orphan, stroke his head and give him from your f ood. Your heart will become softened and your will acquire your need.”

4. Avoiding too much laughing as it is fatal to the heart and its khushoo’

There occurs in the hadeeth: “…Indeed too much laughing kills the heart.”

5. Choosing suitable actions

This is from a number of different aspects:

  1. In that they are halaal/lawful, because Allaah does not accept but the lawful and wholesome. Consuming unlawful property repels the supplication and prevents khushoo’.
  2. That these actions do not oppose the times of prayer. If that is the case, a man will start to make decisions for himself by allowing himself to delay the pr ayers or even making them up if he misses the time in which they are to be perfo rmed. He may also ask someone who will give him such an answer.
  3. That he tries to find out – according to his capability – those actions which are not strenuous or exacting, so that he enters into the prayer with a humble and repentant heart. The one who is tired and overworked must refresh his mind a nd this is at the expense khushoo’ in the prayer.

The Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) has commanded us that when supper is served and the iqaamah has also been pronounced for the prayer, we begin with the supper until we have finished from it. This is because of the hearts occupation with the provisions o utside of the prayer. Ibn Umar (ra) reported from the Prophet (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) that he said : “When the meal of one of you is served and the prayer has commenced, begin wit h the meal first and do not hurry until you have finished from it.”

6. Not being excessively occupied with the affairs of the world.

This is because it will most certainly be at the expense of the Hereafter. Take, therefore, from the world that which will cloth you, your family and your child ren. If your work is done in the morning it will suffice you. There is nothing w hich necessitates work in the evening. If you receive a consistent amount of bus iness which brings you profits in abundance there is no need for becoming entang led with a variety of trades, dividing your mind thereby, making you forget the rights of your Lord and destroying the rights of your self, your family and your dependants.

7. Reciting the Qur’aan abundantly.

Also what has been established from among the various remembrances and supplicat ions from the Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) as well as reading the heart-melting traditions an d stories. These soften the heart and make the Shaytaan distant.

8. Coming to the prayer early.

So that his zeal for the prayer does not force him to hurry towards the mosque a nd therefore enter the prayer while he is disturbed or muddled.

Abu Qataadah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “When you come to th e prayer you must come to it at ease and with tranquility and do not come to it hastily. Whatever you catch of the prayer, pray it and whatever you miss complete it.”

Also Abu Hurairah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) said: “When the praye r is recompensed for do not come to it hastily but come to it with ease, in tran quility. Whatever you catch of it pray it and whatever you miss complete it. Ind eed when one of you comes to perform the prayer he is engaged in prayer.”

9. Straightening of the rows, making them level and filling the gaps.

This is because the gaps in the rows are the residing places of Shaytaan and the places where he stands. In a hadeeth there occurs: “Join together in the rows as Shaytaan stands between the gaps.”

The Messenger (sallallaahu alaihi wasallam) used to say when straightening the rows of the Companions (r a): “Be equal (level) and do not separate lest your hearts separate.” He also used to say: “Either you must straighten and make level your rows or Allaah will cause your faces to be separated.”

In the absence of the straightening of the rows, making them level and filling t he gaps is the separation of the faces and hearts, an impairment to Eemaan and k illing of khushoo’. Conversely, in the straightening of the rows and their being level is the perfection of the prayer and its beautification as the Messenger ( sas) said: “… as the straightening of the rows is from the perfection of the prayer” and also his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying: “… as the straightening of the rows is from the beauty of prayer.”

The Excellence of Prayer and Its Beings A Means of Expiation of Sins

Author: Hussain al-Awaa’ishah

Source: As-Salaat Wa Atharuhaa Fee Ziyaadatil Eemaan (Trans Abu Iyaad)

Abu Hurairah (ra) said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)say: “Do you not consider that if there were a river outside the door of one of you in which he bathed five times a day, there would remain any dirt upon him?” They said: There would not remain any dirt upon him. He said: “That is the example of the five prayers. Allaah removes the sins by them.”[1]

Abu Hurairah (ra) also said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “The five prayers and and one Jumu’ah to the next are an expiation for what is between them, as long as no major sins are committed.”[2]

Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree (ra) said that he heard the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) saying: “The five prayers are an expiation for what is between them.” Then the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Do you not see if a man was working and there was between his house and the place of his work five rivers so that when he came to work and did whatever Allaah willed he became dirty and began to sweat, then washed himself every time he passed by a river that there would remain any dirt upon him? Thus is the prayer, every time he does an evil action, then supplicates and asks for forgiveness, he is forgiven for what he did.”[3]

Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: You will be burned, you will be burned4. So if you perform the morning prayer it will wash them away. Then you will be burned, you will be burned. So if you perform Dhuhr prayer it will wash them away. Then you will be burned, you will be burned. So if you perform the Asr prayer it will wash them away. Then you will be burned, you will be burned. So if you perform the Maghrib prayer it will wash them away. Then you will be burned you will be burned. So if you perform the Ishaa prayer it will wash them away. Then you sleep and nothing will be written against you until you awaken.”[5]

Anas bin Maalik (ra) said: The Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “To Allaah belongs an angel which calls at every prayer: O Children of Aadam! Stand and attend to the fires which you have set alight that you may extinguish them.”[6]

Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “A caller is sent at the approach of every prayer and says: O Children of Aadam, stand and extinguish the fire you have kindled for yourselves. So they stand and their sins fall in front of them and are removed in front of them, then they pray and are forgiven for what was between them. Then they kindle a fire again and when the time for prayer is near the caller calls: O Children of Aadam, stand and extinguish the fire which you have kindled for yourselves. So they stand, purify themselves and perform the Dhuhr prayer and are forgiven for what they did between them. When the Asr prayer approaches the same thing occurs and when the Maghrib prayer approaches the same thing occurs and when the darkness comes the same thing occurs. They sleep while they have been forgiven. So one leaves at night in goodness and another in evil.”[7]

Taariq ibn Shihaab said that he spent the night with Salmaan al-Faarsee (ra) to see how he strived (i.e. in worship). Taariq said: So he stood and prayed during the last part of the night. It was as if he (Taariq) did not actually see what he used to think (about Salmaan). So he mentioned that to Salmaan and he said: Safeguard these five prayers as they are an expiation for these wounds which (even) carnage/murder does not inflict.[8]

Amr ibn Marrah al-Juhainee (ra) said: A man came to the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and said: O Messenger of Allaah! Do you see that if I testify that there is none that deserves worship except Allaah alone and you are His Messenger, then perform the five prayers, give the zakah, fast the month of Ramadan and remain upon that, amongst whom will I be? He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Amongs the truthful and the martyrs.”[9]

Abu Uthmaan said: I was with Salmaan (ra) under a tree and he took a dry branch and began to shake it until its leaves fell to the ground. He said: O Abu Uthmaan! Will you not ask me why I am doing this? I said: Why are you doing this? He said: The Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) did the same to me while I was with him under a tree. He took a dry branch and began to shake it until all the leaves fell to the ground. Then he said: O Salmaan! Will you not ask me why I am doing this? So I said: And why are you doing this? He said: “Indeed (each time) the Muslim performs wudhoo and beautifies it, then performs the five prayers his sins fall from him jusst like these leaves have fallen” and then he recited the verse:

Establish the prayer at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night. Indeed the good deeds remove the evil deeds. This is the reminder for those who remember.[10]”[11]

Uthmaan (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “There is no male muslim who when the time for the obligatory prayer approaches, beautifies its wudhoo,and performs it while beautifying its khushoo’ and its rukoo’ except that it becomes an expiation for the sins that were before it, as long as he did not commit any major sins and this is for all time.”[12]

Abu Ayyoob (ra) said that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say: “Every prayer reduces the sins which are before it.”[13]

Sa’d bin Abi Waqqaas (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: There were two brothers and one of them perished forty nights before the other one. I mentioned the excellence of the first one to die in the presence of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Was not the second one a muslim (also)?” They said: Of course, and there was nothing wrong with him. Then the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “And what will inform you where his prayer has made him reach? Indeed the example of the prayer is like the example of a fresh and copious river which is by the door of one of you . He immerses himself in it five times every day. So what do think would remain from his impurities? Indeed you do not know where his prayer has made him reach.”[14]

Abu Hurairah (ra) said: There were two men who became muslims at the hand of the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). One of them became a martyr and the other one was delayed for a year (i.e. his death). Talha bin Ubaidullaah said: I then saw the one whose death was delayed entered into Paradise before the martyr and was amazed at that. I woke up and mentioned that to the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the Messenger of Allaah said: “Did he not fast the month of Ramadan after him and pray six thousand rakah and likewise such and such amount of rakah in a year’s prayers?” In the the Saheehah of Ibn Hibbaan there is the addition: “Between them is a distance greater than that which is between the heavens and the earth.”[15]

Ibn Umar (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “When the servant standsto pray all his sins are taken and are placed on his head and shoulders. Every time he bows or prostrates the sins fall away from him.”[16]

Thawbaan (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Be upright and steadfast and you will never be able to count (your good deeds) and know that the best of your actions is the prayer. None but a believer maintains wudhoo.”[17]

Abu Maalik al-Ash’aree (ra) said: The Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Cleanliness is one half of Eemaan, ‘Alhamdulillaah’ fills the scales and ‘Subhaanallaah’ and ‘Alhamdulillaah’ fill what is between the heavens and the earth. Prayer is light and Charity is an evidence. Patience is an illumination and the Qur’an is a proof in your favour or against you.”[18]

Abu Dharr (ra) said: The Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out in the winter when the leaves were falling. He took a branch off the tree and the leaves began to fall off it. He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “O Abu Dharr.” I said: At your service O Messenger of Allaah. He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Indeed the muslim servant performs a prayer, desiring by it nothing but the face of Allaah and his sins fall from him just like these leaves fall from this tree.”[19]

Rabee’ah bin Ka’b said: I used to stay with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and I came to him while he performed wudhoo. He said: “Ask me.” I said: I ask you for your company in Paradise. He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Ask me for other than that.” I said: It is the same. He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Then help me (to do that) by increasing your prostrations.”[20]

Abu Hurairah (ra) said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Prayer is the best affair so whoever is able to increase in it then let him increase in it.”[21]

Abu Hurairah also said: The Messenger of Allaah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) passed by a grave and said: “Who is the companion of this grave?” They said: So and so. So he said: “Two rakah are more loved by him than what remains in your world.”[22]


[1] Reported by Bukhaaree, Muslim, at-Tirmidhee and an-Nasaaee.
[2] Reported by Muslim and others.
[3] Reported by al-Bazzaar and at-Tabaraanee in [al-Awsat] and [al-Kabeer] with a faultless isnaad.
[4] Meaning: You will be destroyed due to the many sins you commit.
[5] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [as-Sagheer] and others.
[6] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Awsat] and [as-Sagheer].
[7] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Kabeer].
[8] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Kabeer] and their is no fault in its isnaad which is Mawqoof (traced back to a companion only).
[9] Reported by al-Bazzaar, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibbaan. The wording is that of Ibn Hibbaan.
[10] Surah Hud 11:114
[11] Reported by Ahmad, an-Nasaaee and at-Tabaraanee. This verse was revealed when a man kissed a woman and then came to the Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and mentioned it to him. Then the verse: Establish the prayer at the two ends of the day and at the approaches of the night. Indeed the good deeds remove the evil deeds. This is the reminder for those who remember. The man then said. Is this for me (i.e. forgiveness)? The Messenger (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: To whoever acts upon this verse from my Ummah.
[12] Reported by Muslim
[13] Reported by Ahmad with a Hasan isnaad.
[14] Reported by Ahmad with a Hasan isnaad, Maalik and an-Nasaaee and the wording is that of Maalik.
[15] The author did not provide a referefence for this hadeeth [Translator’s note].
[16] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Kabeer] and al-Bayhaqee in his [Sunan]. It is also in [Saheeh ul-Jaami’], no. 1671.
[17] Reported by al-Haakim and he said: It is Saheeh with the condition of the two shaiks (i.e. Bukhaaree and Muslim). There is no fault with it except that Abu Bilaal, one of the narrators used to forget sometimes. Ibn Hibbaan also reported it in his [Saheeh] but through a narrator other than Abu Bilaal. See [Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb], no. 375.
[18] Reported by Muslim and others
[19] Reported by Ahmad with a Hasan isnaad.
[20] Reported by Muslim and others and the wording is that of Muslim.
[21] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Awsat]. Shaikh al-Albaanee said: It has supporting witnesses which make it strong. At- Tayaaleesee, Ahmad and al-Haakim brought it with two isnaads from Abu Dharr and Ahmad and others from the hadeeth of Abu Umaamah. So the hadeeth is Hasan inshaa’allaah.
[22] Reported by at-Tabaraanee in [al-Awsat] with a Hasan isnaad. Another hadeeth which is worthy of being mentioned in this chapter is what has been reported from by Bukhaaree (The Book of Hearlt-Melting Traditions) from Aby Hurairah in part of a long hadeeth in which he (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “… When Allaah has finished the Judgement between His servants and intends to take out from the fire whomever He wishes to take out from among those who used to testify that there is nothing deserving of worship except Allaah alone, He will order the angels to take them out. The angels will recognise them by the marks of prostration (on their foreheads) for Allaah forbade the Fire to consume the traces of prostration on the bodies of the Sons of Aadam. They will take them out and by then they will have been burnt to coal. Then water, known as the ‘water of life’ will be poured upon them and they will spring out like a seed springs out on the bank of a river stream.” [Translator’s note]

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